Landlocked in the central part of the country, Madhya Pradesh is bordered by the states of Rajasthan to its northwest, Uttar Pradesh to its north, Chhattisgarh to its east, Maharashtra to its south, and Gujarat to its west. Madhya Pradesh had the honour of being the largest state of the country until Chhattisgarh was carved out of it on 1 November 2000.
Madhya Pradesh has a mixed topography that consists of both hills and plains. The state has three predominant seasons: winter (November to February), summer (March to May), and the monsoon season (June to September). During the winter, average temperatures range from 10° to 27° C (50° to 81° F). Summers are hot, with an average temperature of 29° C (85° F) and a high temperature that at times reaches 48° C (118° F). During the monsoon season average temperature lies between average 19° to 30° C (66° to 86°). Madhya Pradesh receives an average annual rainfall of about 1200 mm (nearly 50 inches), of which 90 percent falls during the monsoon season. The capital of the state is Bhopal.
Madhya Pradesh, a large state in central India, retains landmarks from eras throughout Indian history. Begun in the 10th century, its Hindu and Jain temples at Khajuraho are renowned for their carvings of erotic scenes, most prominently Kandariya Mahadeva, a temple with more than 800 sculptures. The eastern Bandhavgarh and Kanha national parks, noted Bengal tiger sanctuaries, offer guided safaris.